While thermal simulations yield findings on expected average temperatures of room air and of room-enclosure surfaces, they do not provide data on temperature layering and on local air speeds and ventilation rates. Nor do they provide detailed information about thermal comfort levels.
Flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) make it possible to study airflows and temperature conditions throughout complex room geometries, for specific defined parameters. In such simulations, a model of the room volume being studied is overlaid with a (virtual) cellular lattice structure. Basic equations for pressure, temperature and flow speed are solved for each cell in the structure, and then the results are studied in terms of interaction between all cells. Ideally, such calculations, via an iterative process, lead to a stable solution for all cells in the room model.
Due to the involved calculations and modeling involved in such CFD simulation, in most cases only stationary conditions can be studied; i.e. each simulation yields a result for one specific set of defined parameters. At the same time, such results can be scaled from the room dimension (room airflow) to the building-interior dimension (air throughflow within a building, from room to room, or from rooms to the facade) and to the building-exterior dimension in which the circulation around and near the structure is considered (flow in inner courtyards, across properties, and in the surrounding district).
Flow simulations are especially of use in the following ways:
Assessment in terms of thermal comfort levels
Assessment in terms of air-temperature levels
Assessment in terms of air speeds
> Archäologische Zone, Cologne > NCT, Heidelberg > Jacob-und-Wilhelm-Grimm-Zentrum, Berlin > Stadtsparkasse Oberhausen > Rheinpark Metropole, Cologne > Umweltbundesamt Dessau > Bibliothek Folkwang-Hochschule, Essen > Kilolabor J 65, Biberach